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Monday, August 22, 2011

☢ Tokyo Soil Contamination Map Radioactive Hotspots OVER 900.000 bq/m2 in Chiba Prefecture ☢

☢ Estimated 168 Hiroshima Bombs Nuclear Fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant So Far ☢
☢ Fukushimas China Syndrome With Radioactive Steam and Media Blackout ☢

This is the result of soil tests made in the Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. The contamination map show many hotspots of Iodine 131 also called radioiodine, Caesium 134 and Caesium 137. The highest measured hotspot with over 900.000 bq/m2 shown in red on the map is in Chiba Prefecture north of Tokyo.

The Radiation Defense Project doing the investigation took soil and sand samples around the Tokyo area in June and July. The highest reading was taken July 17. Soil was taken 5cm beneath the surface and the sand 15cm beneath the surface.

You can download the pdf documentation with the data, showing where and when the measurements were made. And how high the reading was.
This is the pdf documentation of the map

The measurements are of concern because the amount of people living in the area. The lack of whole body counters makes the situation very hard for people to test their internal radiation levels. There are to date only one (1) whole body counter in Japan. And it can only take some 30 patients a day. With 2 million people living in the Fukushima area alone, and with the wide spread of the hotspots well down in Tokyo. Makes it very difficult to get a grasp of the situation.

Take this into consideration that the public is being exposed to external radiation from their suroundings, together with internal radiation that they accumulate from the air, food and water. Then you start to get an idea about the total amount of radiation. So far the the Japanese are only counting the external radiation exposure and setting the "safe" levels of 20 mSv there after.

We know this from the Chernobyl disaster. During the explosion of Chernobyl, more than 40 different fission products were released. For an appraisal of the consequences, the following four elements are of interest: iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90 and plutonium 239.

Iodine 131 has a half-life of only eight days. (Half-life: the time it takes for the number of atoms in a nuclide to be reduced by half through radioactive decay.)

Radioactive iodine is most hazardous to health during the first weeks after the accident. Iodine 131 is stored in the thyroid gland where it can lead to thyroid cancer in a few years and can cause other dysfunctions of the thyroid gland.

(For information in case of inquiry: Iodine 131 is an artificial isotope of iodine. It’s a beta and gamma emitter with 0.2-0.36 and 0.6-0.72 MeV respectively.)

Cesium 137 on the other hand has a half-life of 30 years. It was dispersed in great quantities. Cesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is deposited in muscles, testicles, kidneys, liver, bones and blood. Cesium 137 is considered a catalyst for cancer, but can also be the cause of a lot of other diseases. The radiologist Juri Bandascheswki of Belarus, for example, detected high concentrations of Cesium 137 in the myocardial muscle of children who suffered a heart attack.

(For information in case of inquiry: Cesium 137 is a beta and gamma emitter with 0.66 MeV.)

Cesium 137 is absorbed by the human body through the food chain. Cesium stays for decades in the upper levels of the soil, where plants have their roots. Through the plants, the nuclides enter animals which are then consumed by humans.

Forrest soil is especially contaminated because radioactive particles adhere easily to needles, foliage, and roots. That’s why until today, it is recommended to abstain from consuming wild animals, mushrooms and berries from the contaminated regions – which also include the parts of Bavaria which were reached by the radioactive cloud.

But it’s not just the soil which is affected. Many nuclides were washed out of the soil by rain and entered the subterranean aquifers and rivers. Exceedingly high is the contamination of ground silt in stagnant water bodies, which in turn are frequented by the populace for private fishing.

Strontium 90 has a half-life of 28 years. Strontium, like Calcium, enters the human body via plant and animal products and is mainly deposited in teeth and bones. New blood is formed in the bone marrow. Strontium is considered a catalyst of leukemia.

Strontium is much more mobile and soluble in water than Cesium. Directly after the accident, Strontium was found in the ground around Chernobyl. Today, experts assume that 80 percent of the Strontium has already entered the food cycle.

(For information in case of inquiry. Strontium is a beta emitter.)

During the accident, Plutonium 239 was also released. Plutonium 239 has an extremely high half-life of up to 24,000 years.

Scientists are especially concerned about Plutonium transforming to Americium. Americium can reach the deeper soil layers in a very short time. Once there, it represents a hazard for subterranean water reservoirs for centuries. (half-life of Americium: 433 years)

(For information in case of inquiry. Plutonium is an alpha emitter.)

Except for Iodine, all other above mentioned radioactive elements enter the human body through the food chain. The exposure of the people around Chernobyl is therefore different from that of the victims of the atomic bombs attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In Hiroshima and Nagasaki, people were exposed to high doses within a very short time. In Chernobyl on the other hand, the bulk of people involved have been exposed to low doses of radioactive radiation over a long period of time.

This is now the situation at Fukushima and unlike the Russians who took action and got the disaster under control. Fukushima Daiichi is still leaking radiation into the environment, contaminating land and water. At Fukushima the weather is in charge of where the deadly radiation will collect.

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Geiger Counters - Radiation Detection Meters - Handheld Radiation Detector

When it comes to radiation detection meters you really have a wide field of gadgets to choose from, however radiation detectors are the most common to use. First of all if you need to know what type of radiation you are looking for. There are Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation detectors. And also there is neutron emission of nuclear radiation. And all these different types of emissions have radiation detectors for a specific type of radiation that you can buy radiation detector for. Some also measure both Alpha and Beta. Others detect Alpha, Beta and Gamma. While others let you measure Beta and Gamma radiation.

What most people have use for though are Dosimeters you can buy a handheld radiation detector pretty cheap that are good addition to a survival kit. There are different kinds that you can use that will detect radiation. There are radiation badges that will tell you when radiation become high. Workers at nuclear power plants use these to inform them of how much radiation they have been exposed to. Now also children in the Fukushima prefecture have each been given a radiation badge so they know if they are exposed to radiation. Some come in the shape of a pen that you can carry in your pocket while other are made more compact so that you can attach them to your keychain. And then you have what is called a personal radiation monitor. These are also called Dosimeters and also normally called Geiger counters. Although not all use the Geiger-Muller Tube for the radiation detection some use a semiconductor instead. These and mostly the older geiger counters seen are pretty big to carry around, so they might not be best suited for a survival situation where you only need to carry the most important things. However if you have land and want to check radiation around the property and drinking water then these are the geiger counters to get because they are very well built units.

These are the once that you normally see people use. They have different units of radiation detection, because when it comes to radiation there are many standards used. some give the measurements in Rads, while other use Sieverts. Some have the maximum radiation value for the measured radioactivity quite low but they will still give you an idea of the amount of radiation in the area. With the units ranging from between background radiation 0.001 mSv/hr all the way up to 10 Sv/h. Normally a dosimeter will measure radiation in micro siverts per hour. If you were to walk into one of the reactor units at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant you probably would get an error reading from your dosimeter because the radiation levels are so high there.

Note that some places outside the exclusion zone in Fukushima that are too radioactive for people to live in have areas where the radiation levels are above 30 Sv/h. So if you are in a area that have high radiation the radiation detectors would also there go off the scale. However Geiger counters or radiation detectors are still favored as general purpose alpha/beta/gamma portable radiation detectors and radiation detection equipment, due to their low cost and robustness. Most come with an LCD Display that show you the radioactivity in the area. Nowdays you will even get alarm sound and the possibility to connect the device to a computer. Either with a Infrared, Bluetooth or USB connection.

So if you look at the radiation detectors for sale that have this, then these radiation detection meters will allow you to make maps of contaminated areas that show where the radiation is high and low. This also will help you to see which areas are becoming more contaminated over time. With several nuclear reactors in the US and around the world located near fault zones that makes it a danger if a big earthquake would hit the area there is always a good choice to have a radiation dosimeter avaliable. I'm sure many in Fukushima would have been grateful to have dosimeters avaliable at the time of the disaster and I am sure you to would be grateful to have a geiger counter handy when you need one.