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Saturday, July 27, 2013

☢ What Is PLUTOnium? - Short Video ☢

Plutonium held in hands of a nuclear worker
This is how Plutonium looks
The following is a short but informative video about Plutonium. It explains the alchemy behind it and the process in nuclear plants.

And also gives us an understanding about how toxic this element Plutonium PU-242 with it's atomic number 94 is to humans and all living creatures on this planet.




The following is a letter found at http://www.ccnr.org/max_plute_aecb.html
(CCNR is a not-for-profit organization, federally incorporated in 1978. It is dedicated to education and research on all issues related to nuclear energy, whether civilian or military -- including non-nuclear alternatives -- especially those pertaining to Canada.)

How much plutonium does it take
to overdose a person?

Letter from the Atomic Energy Control Board
(followed by comments from CCNR)


re: Maximum Permissible Intake
of Plutonium by Inhalation

September 30 1999

Ms. Kristen Ostling
National Coordinator
Campaign for Nuclear Phaseout
1200-1 Nicholas Street
Ottawa Ontario
K1N 7B7


Subject:
 
Quantity of Plutonium that an Atomic Radiation Worker
and the Public may Inhale to Reach their Respective Limits

Dear Ms. Ostling:
The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) does not set maximum permissible quantities of radionuclides for workers or the public. Regulatory protection criteria are expressed in terms of effective dose limits.
In this context, we understand your question to mean: "What is the quantity of plutonium oxide, if inhaled, would give rise to an effective dose of 50 mSv [ millisieverts ] to a worker or 5 mSv to a member of the public?"
As the result of an intake, these doses will be received over 50 years by a worker and over a period ending at age 70 by a member of the public. These calculations have been made for insoluble (in lung fluid) plutonium oxide of 1 micrometer size. These assumptions are very conservative (restrictive); in other words the worst case scenario has been assumed.


workers:
 
1.4 micrograms for 50 mSv committed effective dose
(over 50 years after intake)
public:
 
0.1 microgram for 5 mSv committed effective dose
(up to age 70)
If you have any other questions, please do not hesitate to contact me at (613) 996-5637.
Yours truly,


M. P. Measures, Ph.D.
Director
Radiation and Environmental Protection Division

Comments from CCNR

Foreword

Plutonium is a highly toxic material. Attempts to deny or to obscure this fact are, we feel, irresponsible.
Some spokespersons for AECL and for the Government of Canada have suggested that there is no danger involved in MOX transport worthy of anyone's serious consideration.
We feel compelled to point out that, although the probability of a severe accident that would release plutonium to the atmosphere is admittedly small, the potential health and environmental consequences of such an accident can be serious due to the extraordinary toxicity of plutonium when inhaled.
It is for this reason alone that the United States of America has made it illegal to transport plutonium by air in US territory. Such a prohibition does not exist for any other radioactive material.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has admitted, in documents submitted to Transport Canada, that in four out of eight categories of serious road transportation accidents, the MOX containers would be completely destroyed and a plume of plutonium dust would be spread downwind to a distance of about 80 kilometers.
Transport Canada has stated -- not once, but several times, in its response to public commentaries about AECL's plans for MOX transport by road -- that transporting MOX by air is much more dangerous than doing it by road because of the health dangers of inhaling plutonium dust following an accident.
Industry and government spokespersons have insisted that120 grams of plutonium is too small an amount to raise legitimate health and environmental concerns. They have made the irrelevant observation that 120 grams of plutonium is about the size of two A-A batteries.
Such remarks are manipulative in nature; they do not help people to weigh the risk. The important quantity is not the VOLUME or MASS of plutonium, but its TOXICITY. Based on data supplied by AECB (see letter above) we can address the toxicity question as follows:

In principle, using AECB's regulatory limits,
how many ''civilians'' can be overdosed
by 100 grams of plutonium?

0.1 microgramscan overdose one civilian

multiply by one million
0.1 gramscan overdoseone million civilians

multiply by ten
1 gramcan overdoseten million civilians

multiply by one hundred
100 gramscan overdoseone billion civilians
600 gramscan overdosesix billion civilians


If there is a serious accident involving
120 grams of plutonium (in the form of MOX),
how many civilian overdoses could, in principle, result?


if NONE of the plute
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
one billion two hundred million
civilian overdoses
 
if 90 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
one hundred and twenty million
civilian overdoses
 
if 99.9 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
one hundred and twenty thousand
civilian overdoses
 
if 99.999 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
one thousand two hundred
civilian overdoses
 


In principle, using AECB's regulatory limits,
how many ''atomic radiation workers'' can be
overdosed by 140 grams of plutonium?


1.4 micrograms
 
can overdose
 
one atomic worker
 
1.4 grams
 
can overdose
 
one million workers
 
14 grams
 
can overdose
 
ten million workers
 
140 grams
 
can overdose
 
one hundred million workers
 
560 grams
 
can overdose
 
four hundred million workers
 


If there is a serious accident involving
600 grams of plutonium (in the form of MOX),
how many worker overdoses could, in principle, result?


if NONE of the plute
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
four hundred twenty-five
million worker overdoses
 
if 90 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
forty-two and a half
million worker overdoses
 
if 99.9 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
forty-two and a half
thousand worker overdoses
 
if 99.999 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
four hundred and twenty-five
worker overdoses
 


If there is a serious accident involving
600 grams of plutonium (in the form of MOX),
how many civilian overdoses could, in principle, result?


if NONE of the plute
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
six billion
civilian overdoses
 
if 90 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
six hundred million
civilian overdoses
 
if 99.9 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
six hundred thousand
civilian overdoses
 
if 99.999 percent of it
is safely contained
 
there is a potential for
 
six thousand
civilian overdoses
 


Afterword

The probability of a serious accident involving MOX transport is small, but the consequences can be severe. They can also be very long-lived: since plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years, plutonium contamination can be permanent. It is a betrayal of public trust to pretend that these risks do not exist.
Unlike most shipments of radioactive materials, plutonium shipments are attractive targets for criminals or terrorists, because plutonium is the primary nuclear explosive material from which atomic bombs can be made.
Any attempted hijacking can only increase the risks of unintended releases of plutonium to the atmosphere.


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Geiger Counters - Radiation Detection Meters - Handheld Radiation Detector



When it comes to radiation detection meters you really have a wide field of gadgets to choose from, however radiation detectors are the most common to use. First of all if you need to know what type of radiation you are looking for. There are Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation detectors. And also there is neutron emission of nuclear radiation. And all these different types of emissions have radiation detectors for a specific type of radiation that you can buy radiation detector for. Some also measure both Alpha and Beta. Others detect Alpha, Beta and Gamma. While others let you measure Beta and Gamma radiation.



What most people have use for though are Dosimeters you can buy a handheld radiation detector pretty cheap that are good addition to a survival kit. There are different kinds that you can use that will detect radiation. There are radiation badges that will tell you when radiation become high. Workers at nuclear power plants use these to inform them of how much radiation they have been exposed to. Now also children in the Fukushima prefecture have each been given a radiation badge so they know if they are exposed to radiation. Some come in the shape of a pen that you can carry in your pocket while other are made more compact so that you can attach them to your keychain. And then you have what is called a personal radiation monitor. These are also called Dosimeters and also normally called Geiger counters. Although not all use the Geiger-Muller Tube for the radiation detection some use a semiconductor instead. These and mostly the older geiger counters seen are pretty big to carry around, so they might not be best suited for a survival situation where you only need to carry the most important things. However if you have land and want to check radiation around the property and drinking water then these are the geiger counters to get because they are very well built units.

These are the once that you normally see people use. They have different units of radiation detection, because when it comes to radiation there are many standards used. some give the measurements in Rads, while other use Sieverts. Some have the maximum radiation value for the measured radioactivity quite low but they will still give you an idea of the amount of radiation in the area. With the units ranging from between background radiation 0.001 mSv/hr all the way up to 10 Sv/h. Normally a dosimeter will measure radiation in micro siverts per hour. If you were to walk into one of the reactor units at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant you probably would get an error reading from your dosimeter because the radiation levels are so high there.

Note that some places outside the exclusion zone in Fukushima that are too radioactive for people to live in have areas where the radiation levels are above 30 Sv/h. So if you are in a area that have high radiation the radiation detectors would also there go off the scale. However Geiger counters or radiation detectors are still favored as general purpose alpha/beta/gamma portable radiation detectors and radiation detection equipment, due to their low cost and robustness. Most come with an LCD Display that show you the radioactivity in the area. Nowdays you will even get alarm sound and the possibility to connect the device to a computer. Either with a Infrared, Bluetooth or USB connection.

So if you look at the radiation detectors for sale that have this, then these radiation detection meters will allow you to make maps of contaminated areas that show where the radiation is high and low. This also will help you to see which areas are becoming more contaminated over time. With several nuclear reactors in the US and around the world located near fault zones that makes it a danger if a big earthquake would hit the area there is always a good choice to have a radiation dosimeter avaliable. I'm sure many in Fukushima would have been grateful to have dosimeters avaliable at the time of the disaster and I am sure you to would be grateful to have a geiger counter handy when you need one.

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